Wa forex piratage informatique

No cutoff date for Canada to join NAFTA 2. Jump to wa forex piratage informatique Jump to search This article is about the history of the sailing vessel in China. For modern developments and sailing techniques, see Junk rig. This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry.

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today. The term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards. They vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails. This section needs additional citations for verification. The structure and flexibility of junk sails make the junk fast and easily controlled.

The sails of a junk can be moved inward toward the long axis of the ship. In theory this closeness of what is called sheeting allowed the junk to sail into the wind. Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments or bulkheads, strengthened the ship and slowed flooding in case of holing. As these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, and each of these apartments caulked tight so as to keep out water. In 1795, Sir Samuel Bentham, inspector of dockyards of the Royal Navy, and designer of six new sailing ships, argued for the adoption of “partitions contributing to strength, and securing the ship against foundering, as practiced by the Chinese of the present day”. Due to the numerous foreign primary sources that hint to the existence of true watertight compartments in junks, historians such as Joseph Needham proposed that the limber holes were stopped up as noted above in case of leakage.

Holes are purposely contrived in the planking. This is the case with the salt-boats which shoot the rapids down from Tzuliuching in Szechuan, the gondola-shaped boats of the Poyang Lake, and many sea going junks. The master of the ship then played a trick upon them. This, however, would seem to have involved openings which could be controlled, and the water pumped out afterwards. England, where the compartment was called the ‘wet-well’, and the boat in which it was built, a ‘well-smack’. More to the point wet wells were apparent in Roman small craft of the 5th century CE. Leeboards and centerboards, used to stabilize the junk and to improve its capability to sail upwind, are documented from a 759 AD book by Li Chuan.

The innovation was adopted by Portuguese and Dutch ships around 1570. Other innovations included the square-pallet bilge pump, which was adopted by the West during the 16th century for work ashore, the western chain pump, which was adopted for shipboard use, being of a different derivation. Junks also relied on the compass for navigational purposes. Junks employed stern-mounted rudders centuries before their adoption in the West for the simple reason that Western hull forms, with their pointed sterns, obviated a centreline steering system until technical developments in Scandinavia created the first, iron mounted, pintle and gudgeon ‘barn door’ western examples in the early 12th century CE. The rudder is reported to be the strongest part of the junk. Song Yingxing wrote, “The rudder-post is made of elm, or else of langmu or of zhumu. The four sails do not face directly forward, but are set obliquely, and so arranged that they can all be fixed in the same direction, to receive the wind and to spill it.

Those sails which are behind the most windward one receiving the pressure of the wind, throw it from one to the other, so that they all profit from its force. The great trading dynasty of the Song employed junks extensively. The naval strength of the Song, both mercantile and military, became the backbone of the naval power of the following Yuan dynasty. The enormous dimensions of the Chinese ships of the Medieval period are described in Chinese sources, and are confirmed by Western travelers to the East, such as Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta and Niccolò da Conti. We stopped in the port of Calicut, in which there were at the time thirteen Chinese vessels, and disembarked. On the China Sea traveling is done in Chinese ships only, so we shall describe their arrangements. A ship carries a complement of a thousand men, six hundred of whom are sailors and four hundred men-at-arms, including archers, men with shields and crossbows, who throw naphtha.

Three smaller ones, the “half”, the “third” and the “quarter”, accompany each large vessel. When these walls have thus been built the lower deck is fitted in and the ship is launched before the upper works are finished. The largest junks ever built were possibly those of Admiral Zheng He, for his expeditions in the Indian Ocean. According to Chinese sources, the fleet for Zheng’s 1405 expedition comprised nearly 30,000 sailors and over 300 ships at its height.

Water tankers, with 1 month’s supply of fresh water. Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia. While they may sound similar, the physical description of Javanese junk differed from Chinese junk. It is made of very thick wood, and as the ship gets old, they fix it with new boards and in this style they have four closing boards, stacked together. The rope and the sail is made by osier. Encounter of giant jongs were recorded by Western travellers. Giovanni da Empoli said that the junks of Java is no different in its strength than a castle, because it had three and four boards, one above the other, which cannot be harmed with artillery.

They sail with their women, children, and family, and everyone keeps their room by themselves. This article possibly contains original research. Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map. Chinese junks are described as very large, three or four-masted ships. They build some ships much larger than ours, capable of containing 2,000 tons in size, with five sails and as many masts.